10. Mai 2016

TOEFL Diagnostik Test

Welcome to your TOEFL Diagnostik Test

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Two underlined sentences are followed by a question or statement. Read the sentences, then choose the best answer to the question or the best completion of the statement.

Today's teenagers spend millions of dollars on clothing, cosmetics and other types of products. One reason is that they have grown up in a time of almost constant prosperity.

Which answer best describes the relationship between these two statements?

To perform CPR correctly, open the victim' mouth and free the throat of any obstructions. Begin artificial breathing by blowing down the victim's cleared throat while keeping the nostrils closed with your fingers.

What is the relationship between these two statements?

There are rules that drivers and passengers should follow to stay safe when in moving vehicles. These rules include driving within the speed limit and wearing seatbelts.

What is the relationship between these two statements?

The Midwest is experiencing its worst drought in fifteen years. Corn and soybean prices are expected to be very high this year.

What does the second sentence do?

The number of young, unmarried people has grown dramatically in the last decade. Business people, politicians, and advertisers now target the incomes and interests of this population.

What is the relationship between these two ideas?

Read the statement or passage and then choose the best answer to the question. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the statement or passage.

Divorce or the death of a parent is bound to unsettle children who may be involved. Daily routines like eating meals together or doing homework may disappear at a time when children need structure the most. Many children, testing the stability or security of their new family situation, may become defiant or uncharacteristically hostile.

According to this passage, divorce or the death of a parent...

After seven years of construction, the new East Wing of the National Gallery in Washington, D.C., was finally opened in the public in 1978. Designed by I.M. Pei, the East Wing is probably the most expensive public building ever erected in the United States. Most of the $95 million that went into constructing it was donated by Paul Mellon and the Mellon Foundation. Interestingly enough, Paul's father, Andrew Mellon, was the person who donated funds in the 1930's to build what is now the main building of the National Gallery.

The main purpose of the passage is to...

Jazz is a peculiarly American contribution to Western culture. It was born out of the unique experience of American Blacks. Although its history is not entirely clear, jazz obviously has roots in the rhythm patterns and melodic lines of Africa, the tradition of Christian spirituals as sung by slave communities, the music of the blues as developed in the Deep South, and ragtime.

According to this passage, one can conclude that...

There are two types of pottery that I do. There is production pottery - mugs, tableware - the kinds of things that sell easily. These pay for my time to do the other work, which is more creative and satisfies my needs as an artist.

The author of the passage implies that...

Some actors and rock stars are paid almost 100 times as much per year as school teachers. Not to downgrade the role of entertainment in our lives, but these people are not the valuable social resource that educators are. As another example, professional athletes earn vastly more than the nation' firefighters. Again, there is little doubt that the lower paid group contributes a more vital function to communities. Finally, dress designers, who can make up to $50,000 for a gown, far out-earn police officers, whose very presence makes our cities and towns livable.

Based on this passage, the earning power in our society...

Read the statement or passage and then choose the best answer to the questions.

The study of history provides many benefits. First, we learn from the past. We may repeat mistakes, but, at least, we have the opportunity to avoid them. Second, history teaches us what questions to ask about the present. Contrary to some people's view, the study of history is not the memorization of names, dates, and places. It is the thoughtful examination of the forces that have shaped the courses of human life. We can examine events from the past and then draw inferences about current events. History teaches us about likely outcomes. Another benefit of the study of history is the broad range of human experience which is covered. War and peace are certainly covered as are national and international affairs. However, matters of culture (art, literature, and music) are also included in historical study. Human nature is an important part of history: emotions like passion, greed, and insecurity have influenced the shaping of world affairs. Anyone who thinks that the study of history is boring has not really studied history.

What is the main idea of this passage?

In the first paragraph, inferences means...

Which method of teaching history would the author of this passage support?

Read the passage and then choose the best answer to the questions.

In teaching of history as opposed to literature a smattering can be of great utility. For those who are not going to be professional historians the sort of thing that in America is called a survey course can, if it is rightly done, give a valuable sense of the larger process within which things which are near and familiar take place. Such a course should deal with the history of Man, not with the history of this or that country, least of all one's own. It should begin with the oldest facts known through anthropology and archaeology, and should give a sense of the gradual emergence of those things in human life which give man such a place in our respect as he may deserve. It should not present as the world's heroes those who have slaughtered the greatest number of enemies, but rather those who have been mist notable in adding to the world's capital of knowledge and beauty and wisdom. It should show the strange resurgent power of what is valuable in human life, defeated time and again by savagery and hate and destruction, but nevertheless at the very first possible opportunity, emerging again like grass in the desert after rain. It should, while youth leaves hopes and desires still plastic, fix those hopes and desires not upon victory over other human beings, but upon victory over those forces which have hitherto filled the life of man with suffering and sorrow - I mean, the forces of nature reluctant to yield her fruits, the forces of militant ignorance, the forces of hate, and the deep slavery to fear which is our heritage from the original helplessness of mankind. All this a survey of history should give and can give. All this, if it enters into the daily texture of men's thoughts, will make them less harsh and less mad.

It can be inferred that teaching of literature,...

Whatever is valuable in human life,...

The word ‘plastic’ (Para 1) in the context would mean...

When we acquire the capacity to see the general in particular, we...

The author feels that a survey course such as he mentions will make men...

Read the following statement, then listen to the passage. On a piece of paper, take notes on the main points of the listening passage.

Microbe is a term for tiny creatures that individually are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. Microbes include bacteria, archaea, fungi and protists. Microbiologists have found microbes living just about everywhere: in the soil, water and air; in animals, plants, rocks and even us! Microbes have been around for billions of years because they are able to adapt to the ever-changing environment. They can find a home anywhere and some of them live in places where we once thought nothing could survive. For example, scientists have discovered microbes living in the boiling waters of hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. These microbes "eat" hydrogen gas and sulfur and "breathe" hydrogen sulfide. Other heat-loving microbes live in volcanic cracks miles under the ocean surface where there is no light and the water is a brew of poisonous arsenic, sulfur and other nasty chemicals. Other microbes live in the permanently frozen ice of Antarctica.

Now click on the symbol to listen to the passage on microbes:

Now answer the following questions.

Which of the following is not true of the microbes:

Which of the following statements is true:

Which of the following statements means the same as "a brew of poisonous arsenic"?

What is different about the new microbes?

Why are scientists excited over these microbes?

Read the following statement, then listen to the passage. On a piece of paper, take notes on the main points of the listening passage.

The Development of Predation Theory

Mathematical models of predation are amongst the oldest in ecology. The Italian mathematician Volterra is said to have developed his ideas about predation from watching the rise and fall of Adriatic fishing fleets. When fishing was good, the number of fishermen increased, drawn by the success of others. After a time, the fish declined, perhaps due to over-harvest, and then the number of fishermen also declined. After some time, the cycle repeated.
Predation is used to include all "+/-" interactions in which one organism consumes all or part of another. This includes predator-prey, herbivore-plant, and parasite-host interactions. These linkages are the prime movers of energy through food chains. They are an important factor in the ecology of populations, determining mortality of prey and birth of new predators. Predation is an important evolutionary force: natural selection favors more effective predators and more evasive prey. Predation is widespread and easy to observe. Neither its existence nor its importance is in doubt.

Now click on the symbol to listen to the passage on predation theory:

Now answer the following questions:

Volterra developed his theory on predation by observing...

The word "interactions" in the paragraph means:

What does the paragraph imply about evolution?

What are predators likely to do first?

Where does the energy for predators come from?